Pullman begins chapter two by stating the importance of audience analysis when creating an argument. In order to be persuasive one must know who their audience is through extensive research. For example, putting yourself into their shoes will allow you, as the author, to connect with your audience on the same level. An audience is more likely to be persuaded by someone they can trust or someone they consider to be a like-minded individual. Pullman also notes that the best way to begin constructing an argument is by knowing and anticipating how your audience thinks and feels.
Pullman also introduces the idea of a “persona,” which is a “general profile” (p.72) of the audience. A persona allows the author to further connect with his or her audience since a full characterization of an audience is not possible. An interesting concept that Pullman mentions in this chapter is that of persona versus characterization. Upon reading the first chapter, it seemed clear that the audience should be narrowed down as closely as possible to establish a more persuasive argument. However this chapter suggests that creating personas, which are generalized types of audience members, will enhance your understanding of how the audience will react to your argument. Even though it is necessary to precisely research your audience, this generalization of the types of people in your audience is important in the construction of an argument. Characterization is defines as “descriptions of unique individuals.” (pg.72) Creating personas will cause the author to ask many questions about their audience in order to understand exactly who they are presenting to.
Pullman states, “It is a cardinal rule of rhetoric that you know your audience.” (pg.76) Simply knowing your audience automatically puts you on the right path for composing a successful argument. Researching who you will be presenting to requires time and dedication and requires the author to step outside of their comfort zone to relate to their readers better. For example, technology is very important to everyday life, so when companies create new products they advertise them more so towards millennials, however, most technology brands create user friendly products to be inclusive of all ages. In order to achieve successful persuasion it is crucial for the author to have a certain level of understanding when it comes to their audience.